Law is the set of rules that governs society. It ensures that individuals have property rights, contract rights, and procedural rights. It also serves to maintain the status quo in a nation.
Laws are made by governments, legislatures, and courts. However, there are some other processes of law-making, such as agreements.
The concept of “law” can be defined as a body of norms that is promulgated as public knowledge. In this sense, it serves as a means to establish a mutuality of constraint and a bond of reciprocity between the state and the citizen.
The idea of “natural law” arose in ancient Greek philosophy. This idea re-emerged in mainstream culture in the writings of Thomas Aquinas.
There are three kinds of law: civil law, criminal law, and religious law. Each of these has its own characteristics. Civil law is characterized by shorter statutes and less detailed judicial decisions. Religious law is based on a religious precept.
Rule of Law requires that laws be promulgated well in advance of the responsibility of the individual. It also requires that the laws be public. Moreover, the generality requirement stipulates that laws operate in an impartial manner.
In contemporary legal systems, there are four universal principles that govern the creation of laws. These are:
Generality, reciprocity, fairness, and accountability. By following these principles, a law can achieve its objectives.
In the modern world, however, these principles have been challenged by the rise of modern policing power. Accountability issues have become particularly acute in the case of military power.